Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Examination and Martyrdom of William Flower, John Cardmaker, John Warne, John Simson, and John Ardeley.
William Flower, (otherwise named Branch,) was born at Snailwell, in Cambridgeshire, at which place he went to school some years, and thence to the abbey of Ely; where, after he had remained a while, he became a professed monk, according to the order and rule of the house, wearing the usual habit, and observing the regulations until the age of twenty-one years; before which he had been a priest and celebrated mass. By reason of a visitation, and certain injunctions by the authority of Henry the VIII. he forsook the house, and casting from him the monk's habit and religion, took upon him the habit of a secular priest, returned to Snailwell, and there celebrated mass, and taught children for about half a year.
He then went into Suffolk, where he served as a secular priest about a quarter of a year, from thence he went to Stoniland, where he acted in the same capacity until the coming of the six articles: when he departed and went into Gloucestershire, where after he had abode awhile, according to God's holy ordinance, he took a wife, with whom he ever after faithfully and honestly continued; and after his marriage, he tarried in Tewkesbury about two years, and from thence he went to Bursley, where he remained three quarters of a year, and practised physic and chirurgery. From thence he removed into Northamptonshire, where he assisted a gentlemen in teaching children to read and write. At length he came to London; after that, being desirous to see his country, he returned to Snailwell, thence to Braintree, then to Coggleshall, where he also taught children. Coming to Lambeth, near London, he hired a house, where he and his wife dwelt together. Being at home upon Easter-Sunday, about ten or eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the same day, he came over the water to St. Margaret's church at Westminister; when seeing a priest, named John Cheltam, administering the sacrament of the altar to the people, he was so provoked and inflamed, that he struck and wounded him upon the head, and also upon the arm and hand, the priest having at the same time in his hand a chalice, with certain consecrated hosts therein. For this he was immediately examined before bishop Bonner, and confessed he had done wrong, submitting himself willingly to punishment, whenever it should come. Howbeit touching his belief in the sacrament, and popish ministration, he neither would nor did submit himself.
Being apprehended and laid in the Gatehouse at Westminister, having as many irons as he could bear, he was summoned again before bishop Bonner, April 19th, 1555, when the bishop, after he had sworn him upon a book, ministered articles and interrogatories to him. Previous to this the following conversation took place between Mr. Flower and Mr. Robert Smith, a fellow prisoner.
Smith. Friend, as I understand that you profess the gospel, and that you have done so a long season, I am bold to come unto you, and in the way of communication to demand and learn a truth at your own mouth, of certain thing by you committed, to the astonishment not only of me, but of others that also profess the truth.
Flower. I praise God for his great goodness in shewing me the light of his holy word; and I give you hearty thanks for your visitation, intending by God's grace to declare all the truth that you shall demand lawfully of me, in all things.
Smith. Then I desire you to shew me the truth of your deed, committed on John Cheltam, priest, in the church, as near as you can, that I may hear from your own mouth how it was.
Flower. I came from my house at Lambeth over the water, and entering into St. Margaret's church, and there seeing the people falling down before a most detestable idol, being moved with extreme zeal for God, whom I saw before my face dishonoured, I drew forth my hanger, and struck the priest which ministered the same unto them; whereupon I was immediately apprehended.
Smith. Did you not know the person that you struck, or were you not zealous upon him for any evil will or hatred between you at any time?
Flower. No, verily, I never to my knowledge saw the person before, neither had evil will or malice; for if he had not had it, another should, if I had at any time come where the like occasion had been ministered, if God had permitted me to do it.
Smith. Do you think that thing to be well done, and after the rule of the gospel?
Flower. I confess all flesh to be subject to the power of Almighty God, whom he maketh his ministers to do his will and pleasure; as for example, Moses, Aaron, Phinease, Joshua, Zimri, Jehu, Judith, Mattathias, with many others, not only changing decrees, but also planting examples of zeal to his honour, against all order and respect of flesh and blood. For, as St. Paul saith, "His works are past finding out." By his Spirit I have also given my flesh at this present unto such order, as it shall please the good will of God to appoint in death, which before the act committed I looked for.
Smith. Think you it is convenient for me, or any other, to do the like by your example?
Flower. No verily, neither do I know whether I could do it again: for I was up very early at St. Paul's church upon Christ's day in the morning, to have done it in my jealousy: but when I came there, I was to more able to do it, than now to undo that which is done; and yet now being compelled by the Spirit, not only to come over the water, and to enter the church, being also in mind fully content to die for the Lord, I gave over my flesh willingly, without all fear, I praise God. Wherefore I cannot learn you to do the like; first, because I know not what is in you; secondly, because the rules of the gospel command us to suffer with patience all wrongs and injuries. Yet nevertheless, if he make you worthy that hath made me zealous, you shall not be letted, judged, nor condemned: for he doth in his people his unspeakable works in all ages, which no man can comprehend. I humbly beseech you to judge the best of the Spirit, and condemn not God's doings: for I cannot express with my mouth the great mercies that God hath shewed me in this thing, which I repent not. Smith. Are you not assured to have death ministered unto you for the act, and even with extremity?
Flower. I did, before the deed committed, adjudge my body to die for the same: whereupon I carried about me, in writing, my opinion of the holy scriptures; that if it had pleased God to have given them leave to have killed my body in the church, they might in the said writing have seen my hope, which I praise God, is laid up safe within my breast notwithstanding any death that may be ministered upon my body in this world; being ascertained of everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord, and being most heartily sorry for all my offences committed in this flesh, and trusting shortly, through his mercy, to cease from the same.
Smith. I need not examine or commune with you of the hope that you have any further: for I perceive, God be praised, you are in good state, and therefore I beseech God, for his mercies, to spread his wings over you, that as for his love you have been zealous, even to the loss of this life, so he may give you his Holy Spirit to conduct you out of this world into a better life, which I think will be shortly.
Flower. I hunger for the same, dear friend, being fully ascertained that they can kill but the body, which I am assured shall receive life again everlasting, and see no more death: entirely desiring you and all that fear the Lord, to pray with me to Almighty God, to perform the same in me shortly.
On the next examination before Bonner, Mr. Flower had the following articles exhibited against him.
"That thou being of lawful age and discretion, at the least seventeen years old, wast a professed monk in the late abbey of Ely, wherein after thy profession thou remainedst until the age of twenty-one years, using all the mean-time the habit and religion of the same house, and wast reputed and taken notoriously for such a person.
"That thou wast ordained and made priest, according to the laudable custom of the catholic church, and afterwards thou didst execute and minister as a priest, and wast commonly reputed, named, and taken for a priest.
"That after the premises, thou, forgetting God, thy conscience, honesty, and the laudable order of the catholic church, didst, contrary to thy profession and vow, take as thy wife, one woman, commonly called Alice Pulton, in the parish of Tewksbury, with whom thou hadst mutual cohabitation, as man and wife, and had by her two children.
"That thou being a religious man and a priest, didst, contrary to the order of the ecclesiastical laws, take upon thee to practise in divers places within the diocese of London, physic and chirurgery, when thou wast not admitted, expert, nor learned. "That upon Easter day last, within the church of St. Margaret's, at Westminster, thou didst maliciously, outrageously, and violently pull out thy wood knife or hanger. And whereas the priest and minister there, called John Cheltam, was executing his cure and charge, especially in doing his service, and administering the sacrament of the altar to communicants, then didst thou wickedly and abominably smite with thy said weapon the said priest, first upon the head, and afterwards upon his hands and other parts of his body, drawing blood abundantly from him, he then holding the said sacrament in his hand, and giving no occasion why thou shouldst so hurt him, the people being grievously offended therewith, and the said church polluted thereby, so that the inhabitants were compelled to repair to another church to communicate, and receive the said sacrament.
"That by reason of the premises, thou wast and art by the ecclesiastical laws of the church, amongst other penalties, excommunicated and accursed in very deed, and not to be accompanied withal, neither in the church nor elsewhere, but in special cases.
"That thou, concerning the truth of Christ's natural body and blood in the sacrament of the altar, hast been for the space of one or more years, and yet art at this present of this opinion, that in the sacrament of the altar, after the words of consecration, there is not really, truly, and in very deed contained under the form of bread the very true and natural body of our Saviour Jesus Christ.
"That thou for the hatred and disdain that thou hadst and didst bear against the said sacrament, and against the said priest administering the same, didst smite, and hurt him in manner before declared. "That thou art also, by order of the ecclesiastical laws of the church, to be reputed, taken, and adjudged a very heretic, and to be punished by and with the pains due for heresy, by reason of the said heresy and damnable opinion.
"That all the premises be true, manifest, notorious, and famous, and that upon the same, and every part thereof, there was and is within the said parish of St. Margaret's, and other places thereabouts, a public voice and fame."
It is unnecessary minutely to detail the answers of Mr. Flower to these charges. To the greater part of them, as an honest man he pleaded guilty, and as a faithful christian he gloried in the plea, and was ready to say--"If this be to be vile I will be more vile still." He denied, however, having at any time been a monk in his heart, declaring that wearing the habit had offended his conscience. On the main point--his violently assailing the priest at the altar--he answered with caution, or rather with silence, declining to explain his conduct or its motives; evidently under the conviction, on the one hand that he had acted from a divine impulse, and on the other that such an assertion before a papal court would only have been turned into an occasion of profane scoffing.
After the deposition of certain witnesses were taken, the bishop asked him, if he knew any cause why sentence should not be read, and he be pronounced a heretic. Mr. Flower answered, "I have nothing at all to say, for I have already said unto you all that I have to say; and what I have said, I will not go from: therefore do what you will." The bishop then proceeded to the sentence, condemning and excommunicating him for a heretic; and after, pronounced him to be degraded, and then committed him to the secular power. Upon the 24th day of April he was brought to the place of martyrdom, which was in St. Margaret's churchyard at Westminster, where the fact was committed. There one Mr. Cholmley came to him, desiring him to recant his heresy, whereby he might do good to the people; or else he would be damned. Flower answered, "Sir, I beseech you, for God's sake, be contented; for what I have said, I have said: and I have been of this faith from the beginning; and I trust to the living God he will give me his Holy Spirit so to continue to the end." Then he desired all the world to forgive him whom he had offended, as he forgave all the world. This done, his right hand being held up against the stake was struck off; and then fire was set unto him. While burning therein, he cried with a loud voice, "O the Son of god, have mercy upon me! O the Son of God, receive my soul!" three times; when his speech was taken from him. Thus endured this constant witness for God the extremity of the fire, being therein cruelly handled by reason of there not being fagots sufficient to burn him, so that they were fain to strike him down into the fire; where he lying along upon the ground, his nether part was consumed in the fire, while his upper part was clear without the fire, his tongue in all men's sight still moving in his mouth.
May 3rd, 1555, a letter was sent to George Colt and Thomas Daniel, to search for and apprehend John Bernard and John Walsh, who used to repair to Sudbury, and carrying about with them the bones of Pygot who was burned, shewed them to the people, and persuaded them to be constant in his religion; and upon examination to commit them to further ordering, according to the laws. The same day Stephen Appes was committed to the Little Ease in the Tower, there to remain two or three days till further examination.
On the 30th of may suffered together, in Smithfield, John Cardmaker, alias sir John Taylor, prebendary of the church of Wells; and John Warne, upholsterer, of St. John's, Walbrook. Cardmaker was an observant friar before the dissolution of the abbeys. He afterwards married, and in Edward's time was appointed a reader in St. Paul's, where the papists were so enraged against him for his doctrine's sake, that while he was reading they cut and mangled his gown with their knives. Mr. Cardmaker being apprehended in the beginning of queen Mary's reign, with Mr. Barlow, bishop of Bath, was brought to London and put in the Fleet prison, king Edward's laws being yet in force. But after the sitting of that parliament, the pope was again admitted as supreme head of the English church, and the bishops had also gotten power and authority, officially to exercise their tyranny: Barlow and Cardmaker were therefore brought before the bishop of Winchester, and others appointed by commission, to examine the faith of such as were then prisoners: and as he had done unto others before, so now he did to them--offered the queen's mercy, if they would agree to be conformable to the papal church. Such were their answers to this, that the chancellor with his fellow commissioners mistook them for papists. Barlow was led again to the Fleet, from whence he was afterwards delivered, and did by exile constantly bear witness to the truth of Christ's gospel. Cardmaker was conveyed to the Compter in Bread street, the bishop of London publishing that he should shortly be delivered, after that he had subscribed to transubstantiation and certain other articles.
Some of the articles objected by Bonner against Cardmaker were, that in times past he did profess the rule of St. Francis, and vowed to keep poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to that rule; that he did receive all the orders of the church then used; that after the said profession and orders, he took to wife a widow, and with her lived in wedlock, breaking thereby his vow and order, and also the ordinance of the church; that Christ, at his last supper, taking bread into his hands, blessing it, breaking it, giving it to his apostles, and saying, "Take, eat: this is my body," did instituted a sacrament there, willing that his body really and truly should be contained in the said sacrament--no substance of bread and wine there remaining, but only the accidents thereof.
To these articles Cardmaker replied, that while under age he did profess the said order and religion, but that he was absolved therefrom by king Henry VIII., that he had received all the orders of the church; that by marriage he brake no vow, being set at liberty by the laws of the realm, and also by the laws and ordinances of the English church. To the last article he answered, that he doth believe it is true; that is to say, that Christ, taking bread at his last supper into his hands, blessing it, breaking it, giving it to his disciples, and saying, "Take, eat: this is my body," did institute a sacrament. And to the other part of this articles, viz. that his body really and truly should be contained in the said sacrament, no substance of bread and wine there remaining, but only the accidents thereof--he answereth, that he doth not believe the same to be true.
Cardmaker, calling to mind the cavillings of the papist, and thinking he had not fully answered the last article, did the next day add the following: "Whereas in my answers to your articles I deny the presence of Christ in the sacrament, I mean not his sacramental presence, for that I confess; but my denial is of his carnal presence in the same. But ye further, because this word is oftentimes taken by the holy fathers, not only for bread and wine, but also for the whole administration and receiving of the same according to Christ's institution; so I say, that Christ if present spiritually too, and in all them who worthily receive the sacrament; so that my denial is still of the real, carnal, and corporeal presence in the sacrament, and not of the sacramental not spiritual presence. This I have thought good to add to my former answer, because no man should misunderstand it."
Mr. John Warne, a respectable tradesman of London, was the next selected for trial before this iniquitous court. Some little variety distinguished the articles alleged against this individual, as the following will shew.
"Thou has said, that about a twelvemonth ago and more, a rough spaniel of thine was shorn on the head, and had a crown like a priest made on the same, thou didst laugh at it, and like it, though thou didst it not thyself, nor knewest who did it. "Thou neither this Lent last past, nor at any time since the queen's majesty reign, hast come into the church, or heard, mass, or been confessed or received the sacrament of the altar; and hast said that thou art not sorry that thou hast so done, but that thou art glad, because thou hast not therewith defiled thy conscience.
"Thou wast in time past here in the city of London, accused of heresy against the sacrament of the altar, according to the order of the laws of this realm of England in the time of king Henry VIII. and when alderman Barnes was then sheriff, and the Thursday after Anne Askew was burnt in Smithfield, and thereupon thou was sent a prisoner to Newgate, to whom Edmund, bishop of London, did repair with his chaplains, to instruct thee in the true faith of Christ, touching the said sacrament of the altar, and to bring thee from thy error, which was, that in the sacrament of the altar there is not the body of Christ, nor any corporeal presence of Christ's body and blood, under the forms of bread and wine; but that in the said sacrament there is only material bread and wine, without any substance of Christ's body and blood at all: and because thou wouldst not leave and forsake thy said heresy therein, but would persist obstinately therein, thou wert, according to the said laws, condemned to be burnt; and thereupon suit being made for thee to the king and others in the court, thou hadst a pardon of king Henry VIII. and thereby didst save thy life. Nevertheless in thy heart and conscience thou didst both then, and also afore believe no otherwise than at this present thou dost believe, that in the sacrament of the altar there is neither the very true body or blood of Christ, nor any other substance but the substance of material bread and wine; and to receive the said material bread and wine, and to break it, and to distribute it among the people, only is the true receiving of Christ's body, and no otherwise. In which thine opinion thou hast ever hitherto since continued, and so dost continue at this present, thou confessing all this to be true, and in witness thereof subscribing thy name thereunto."
Mr. Warne being examined upon the above articles on the 23rd of May, answered for the same, confessing the articles and contents thereof to be true, according as they were objected in every part, subscribing also the same with his hand. Such strength and fortitude God's Holy Spirit wrought in him, to stand firmly and confidently to the defence of the sincere doctrine of his Son.
The bishop, however, exhorted him with many persuasions to leave his heresies, and return to the bosom of his mother the holy church, and commanded him to appear again the next day. On being brought up, he answered as before, and was again earnestly exhorted by the bishop to recant. He answered, that he would not depart from his received profession, unless he were thoroughly persuaded by the holy scriptures. Upon which he was ordered to come again the following day, at one in the afternoon; when the bishop examined him again upon all his former articles objected, to which he still constantly adhered, with this further answer--"I am persuaded that I am in the right opinion, and I see no cause to recant; for all the filthiness and idolatry is in the church of Rome."
The bishop seeing that notwithstanding all his fair promises and terrible threatenings he could not prevail, pronounced the definitive sentence of condemnation against him, and charged the sheriffs of London with him, under whose custody he remained in Newgate until the 30th of May. Which day being appointed for execution, he, with John Cardmaker, were brought by the sheriffs to the place where they should suffer; and being come to the stake, first the sheriffs called Mr. Cardmaker aside, and talked with him secretly, duringwhich time Mr. Warne having prayed, was chained to the stake, and had wood and reeds set about him. The people had before heard a rumour that Mr. Cardmaker would recant, and were greatly afflicted, thinking indeed that he would now recant at the burning of Mr. Warne. At length Mr. Cardmaker left the sheriffs, came towards the stake, and kneeled down and made a long prayer in silence to himself. His prayer ended, he rose, and advanced with a bold courage to the stake, and kissed it: then taking Mr. Warne by the hand, he heartily comforted him, and cheerfully gave himself to be bound. The people seeing this so suddenly done, contrary to their fearful expectation, as men delivered out of a great doubt, cried out for joy, saying-"God be praised the Lord strengthen thee, Cardmaker, the Lord Jesus receive thy spirit." And this continued while the executioner put fire to them, and both passed through the flame to the blessed rest and peace among God's holy saints and martyrs, to enjoy the crown of triumph and victory prepared for the soldiers of Christ Jesus in his kingdom.
John Simson and John Ardeley were brought before the same court, and condemned for the same cause and on the same day with Cardmaker and Warne, namely the 25th of May. It would appear strange that so strict a search and so severe a proceeding were taken in reference to four individuals of no distinction in society. The surprise, however, may be dismissed on finding that on the preceding day Bonner had received a letter from their majesties at Hampton-court relative to the further persecution of the protestants, which acted as a stimulus upon the cruelty and craft of this sanguinary man, and was, doubtless, a means of hastening the condemnation, as well as multiplying the number of the martyrs. The letter is remarkable as a proof of the cruel disposition of Philip and Mary, and of the sophistry with which they could proceed to gratify them.
"Right reverend father in God, right trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. And whereas of late we addressed our letters to the justice of peace within every of the counties of this our realm, whereby amongst other instructions given them for the good order and quiet government of the country round about them, they are willed to have a special regard unto such disordered persons as do lean to any erroneous and heretical opinions, refusing to shew themselves conformable to the catholic religion of Christ's church; wherein if they cannot by good admonitions and fair means reform them, they are willed to deliver them to the ordinary, to be by him charitably travelled withal, and removed from their naughty opinions, or else, if they continue obstinate, to be ordered according to the laws provided in that behalf: understanding now, to our no little marvel, that divers of the said disorderly persons, being by the justices of the peace, for their contempt and obstinacy, brought to the ordinaries to be used as aforesaid, are either refused to be received at their hands, or if they be received, are neither so travelled with as christian charity requireth, nor yet proceeded withal according to the order of justice, but are suffered to continue in their errors, to the dishonour of Almighty God, and dangerous example of others; like as we find this matter very strange, so we have thought convenient both to signify our knowledge, and therewith also to admonish you to have in this behalf such regard henceforth to the office of a good pastor and bishop, as when any such offenders shall be by the said officers or justices of the peace brought unto you, you use your good wisdom and discretion in procuring to remove them from their errors, if it may be, or else in proceeding against them according to the order of the laws; so as through your good furtherance, both God's glory may be better advanced, and the common-wealth more quietly governed. Given under our signet as our manor of Hampton-court, the 24th of May, the first and second years of our reign."
The first article against Simson and Ardeley was of the most sweeping kind; that they had not believed, and did not believe, that there is on earth one catholic and universal whole church, which doth hold all the faith and religion of Christ, and all the necessary articles and sacraments. Secondly, that they had not believed, nor did believe, that they were necessarily bounden, under the pain of damnation, to give full faith and credence unto the said catholic and universal church, and to the religion of the same, in all necessary points of the said faith and religion, without wavering or doubting in the said faith or religion, or in any part thereof. Thirdly, that they had not believed that that faith and religion which both the church of Rome and all other churches in Europe do believe and teach, is agreeing with the said catholic and universal church and the faith and religion of Christ; but contrariwise, that that faith and religion which the church of Rome and all other churches aforesaid have believed, and do now believe, is false, and ought in no wise to be believed and kept of any Christian man. The four other articles alleged that they would not acknowledge the corporeal presence in the eucharist, or the sacrifice of the mass; and that they condemned as superfluous, vain, and unprofitable, auricular confession, and all the ceremonies and services of the church, saying that services in a foreign tongue were unlawful and naught.
The answers of John Simson, and also of John Ardeley, to the foresaid articles, taken out of the bishops' own registers:--
To the first they believe, that here on earth there is one catholic and universal holy church, which doth hold and believe as is contained in the first article; and that this church is dispersed and scattered abroad throughout the whole world. To the second, they believe that they are bound to give faith and credence unto it, as is contained in the second article. To the third, as concerning the faith and religion of the church of Rome, of Italy, Spain, France, Ireland, Scotland, and other churches in Europe, they have nothing to do with that faith and religion: but as concerning the faith and religion of England, that if the said church of England be ruled and governed by the Word of Life, then the church of England hath the faith and religion of the catholic church, and not otherwise; and do say also, that if the church of England were ruled by the heresy. To the fourth they answer, that in the sacrament of the altar there is very bread and very wine, not altered or changed in substance in any wise; and that he that receiveth the said bread and wine, doth spiritually and by faith only receive the body and blood of Christ; but not the very natural body and blood of Christ in substance under the forms of bread and wine. To the fifth they say they have answered in answering to the said fourth article. To the sixth they say they believe that the mass is of the pope, and not of Christ; and therefore it is not good, nor having in it any goodness, saving the "Gloria in excelsis," the epistle and gospel, the creed and the Lord's prayer; and for this cause they have not, nor will they come and hear mass.
To the seventh, John Ardeley answered that he believeth the same to be true; but John Simson doth answer, that he is not fully resolved with himself what answer to make thereunto, and further saith that as touching the common and daily service said and used in the church, he saith that he never said that the service in the church ought to be said but in the English tongue; nor yet he never said, that if it be otherwise said and used than in English, it is unlawful and naught.
These articles being to them objected, and their answers made unto the same, the bishop, according to the mode of his consistory court, respited them to the afternoon. At which time the bishop repeating again the said articles unto them, and beginning with John Ardeley, urged and solicited him to recant. But he constantly standing to his religion answered-"My lord, neither you, nor any of your religion, are of the catholic church; for you are of a false faith: and I doubt not but ye shall be deceived at length, bear as good a face as you can. Ye will shed the innocent blood, and ye have killed many, and yet go about to kill more. And if every hair of my head were a man, I would suffer death in the opinion and faith that I am now in." These, with many other words, he spake. Then the bishop yet demanded if he would relinquish his erroneous opinions, and be reduced again to the unity of the church. He answered, "No! God foreshield that I should so do, for then I should lose my soul."
After this, the bishop asking John Ardeley if he knew any cause why he should not have sentence condemnatory against him, read the condemnation, as he also did against John Simson, standing likewise in the same cause and constancy with John Ardeley. So were they both committed to the secular power, that is, to the hands of the sheriffs, on the 25th day of May, 1555, to be conveyed to the place where they should be executed. Being thus delivered to the sheriffs, they were shortly after sent down from London to Essex, where they were both put to death about the 10th of June. John Simson suffered at Rochford; and John Ardeley, on the same day, at Rayleigh, finished his martyrdom most quietly in the quarrel of Christ's gospel.
Furthermore it is not unworthy to be noted of all men, and known to all posterity, concerning the examination of Ardeley and his company, how that they, on being brought before the commissioners, were by them greatly charged with stubbornness and vain glory. Unto whom they answered in defence of their own simplicity, that they were content willingly to yield to the queen all their gods and lands, so that they might be suffered to live under her, in keeping their conscience free from all idolatry and popery. Yet this would not be granted, although they had offered all to their heart's blood; so greedy and so thirsty be these persecutors of Christian blood. The Lord give them repentance, if it be his will, and keep from them the just reward of such cruel dealing! Amen.