Foxe's Book of Martyrs
Proceedings of the Papists Against the Protestants.--Beheading of the Duke of Suffolk.--Declaration of Mr. Bradford and Others.--Marriage of Queen Mary With Philip, Prince of Spain.--Events That Followed the Marriage.
Having finished our account of the disputations between the Roman catholics and the protestant divines of the reformed religion, of Oxford, we shall now prosecute the historical narration of this tumultuous reign. So many things happened in different parts of the realm, that it is difficult to preserve due order of time in reciting them, we shall therefore return to the month of July, 1553, when the duke of Northumberland was brought to London, and the following persons of distinction were committed to the Tower with him. The earls of Warwick and of Huntingdon; lords Ambrose, Dudley, and Hastings; Sir John and Sir Henry Gates, Andrew Dudley, Sir Thomas Palmer, and Dr. Sands, chancellor of Cambridge. Of these lord Hastings was the only one who, on his complaint, obtained liberation.
The latter end of the same month several other noblemen and gentlemen, together with the bishop of London, and the chief justices of the king's bench and the common pleas, were committed either to the confinement of the Tower, or the custody of the sheriff of London.
Three days after, the queen entered the city, and her first concern was to liberate her friends. For this purpose she first proceeded to the Tower, where she remained seven days, and then removed to Richmond. She gave orders for Dr. Day to be delivered out of the Fleet, and Dr. Bonner out of the Marshalsea. The same day Tonstal and Gardiner were liberated from the Tower, and Gardiner was received into the queen's privy council, and made lord chancellor. The Latin Dirige was sung within the Tower by all the king's choristers, the bishop of Winchester being chief minister, and the queen and most of the council were present. A few days after, the king's remains were brought to Westminster and there buried; on which occasion Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, preached. The same day a mass of Requiem was sung within the Tower by the bishop of Winchester, who had on his mitre, and performed all things as in times past; the queen being present.
Dr. Bourne preached at Paul's Cross soon after, and commands were issued throughout the city, that no apprentices should come to the sermon, nor bear any knife or dagger. Other committals to the Tower took place, among them Mr. Bradford, Mr. Beacon, and Mr. Vernon. The duke of Northumberland, the marquis of Northampton, and the earl of Warwick, were arraigned at Westminster, and condemned the same day, the duke of Norfolk presiding as high judge. Soon after these cases were determined Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John and Sir Henry Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, were arraigned and condemned, the lord marquis of Winchester being high judge. At the same time a letter was sent to Sir Henry Tyrel, and to Anthony and Edmund Brown, esquires, praying them to commit to ward all such as should contemn the queen's order of religion, or keep themselves from church, and there to remain until they should be conformable, and to signify their names to the council.
In the course of the month, Dr. Watson, chaplain to the bishop of Winchester, preached at St. Paul's Cross, at whose sermon were present the marquis of Winchester, the earls of Bedford and Pembroke, the lord Rich, and 200 of the guard with their halberds, lest the people should have offered to disturb the preacher. Apostacies now began. The duke of Northumberland, the marquis of Northampton, Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, heard mass within the Tower, after which they all received the sacrament in one kind only as in popish times. On the same day also the queen set forth a proclamation, signifying to the people that she could not hide any longer the religion which she from her infancy had professed, and prohibiting in the proclamation all printing and preaching--so adverse are the press and the pulpit to error.
The unhappy noblemen, however, found their apostacy unavailing to save their lives. Two days after they had bowed before the idolatrous mass, three of them had to bow their wretched heads beneath the axe of the executioner. They suffered on Tower-hill; and on the same day several others of the nobility heard mass within the Tower, and afterwards received the sacrament in one kind; some of them in sad preparation for the same fate. It was rumoured that Cranmer had promised to say mass after the old manner, and that he even had said it at Canterbury. Upon this, in order to check the evil effects of this artifice of his enemies, and to confirm his friends in their opinion of his steadiness, he published the following declaration, on Sept. 7, 1553.
"As the devil, Christ's ancient adversary, is a liar, and the father of lies, even so hath he stirred up his servants and members to persecute Christ and his true word and religion with lying; which he ceaseth not to do most earnestly at this present time. For whereas the prince of famous memory, king Henry VIII., seeing the great abuses of the Latin mass, reformed some things therein in his life-time; and afterwards our late sovereign lord king Edward VI. took the same wholly away, for the manifold and great errors and abuses of the same, and restored in the place thereof Christ's holy supper, according to his own institution, and such as the apostles used in the primitive church. To overthrow this the devil now goeth about by lying to restore his Latin satisfactory mass, a thing of his own invention and device. And to bring the same more easily to pass, some have abused the name of me Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, reporting abroad, that I have set up the mass at Canterbury, and that I offered to say mass at the burial of our late sovereign, king Edward VI., and before the queen's highness, at St. Paul's church, and I know not where. And although I have been well exercised these twenty years to suffer and bear evil reports and lies, and have not been much grieved thereat, but have borne all things quietly; yet when untrue reports turn to the hindrance of God's truth, they are in no wise to be suffered. Wherefore these be to signify unto the world, that it was not I that set up the mass at Canterbury, but it was a false, flattering, lying and dissembling monk, one Dr. Thornton, who caused it to be set there without mine advice or counsel. The Lord recompense him in that day! And as for offering myself to say mass before the queen's highness, or in any other place, I never did it, as her grace well knoweth. But if her grace will give me leave, I shall be ready to prove, against all that will say the contrary, that all which is contained in the holy communion, set out by the most innocent and godly prince king Edward VI. in his high court of parliament, is conformable to that order which our Saviour Christ did both observe, and command to be observed, and which his apostles and the primitive church used many years; whereas the mass in many things, not only hath no foundation of Christ, his apostles, nor the primitive church, but is manifestly contrary to the same, and containeth many horrible abuses in it. And although many do report that Peter Martyr is unlearned; yet if the queen's highness will grant thereunto, I, with the said Peter Martyr, and other four or five which I shall choose, will, by God's grace, take upon us to defend, not only the common prayers of the church, the ministration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies, but also all the doctrine and religion set out by our sovereign lord king Edward VI. to be more pure, and according to God's word, than any other that hath been used in England these 1000 years: so that God's word may be judge, and that the reasons and proofs of both parties may be set out in writing, to the intent, as well that all the world may examine and judge thereon, as that no man shall start back from his writing. And where they boast of the faith, that hath been in the church these 1500 years we will join with them in this point; and that the same doctrine and usage is to be followed, which was in the church 1500 years pasts; and we shall prove, that the order of the church, set out at this present in this realm by act of parliament, is the same that was used in the church 1500 years past; and so shall they never be able to prove theirs."
This protest of Cranmer obtained for him an almost immediate committal to the Tower. Latimer had been conducted to the same confinement the previous day. The queen was then at Richmond busied in preparing for her coronation. Anxious to know that the foes she most dreaded were safe, she came in little more than a week herself to the Tower, where she staid a short time to give every necessary direction concerning their secure custody and their purposed trial and punishment. After two or three days she proceeded from the Tower through the city, where many pageants were made to receive her, and thus she was triumphantly brought to Whitehall. On the following Sunday she went from Whitehall to Westminster Abbey, accompanied with most of the nobility of the realm, and all the foreign ambassadors, and the mayor of London, with all the aldermen. Out of the Abbey, to receive her, were brought three silver crosses, accompanied by about fourscore singing men, in very rich and gorgeous copes. Amongst them was the dean of Westminster, and divers of the queen's chaplains, all of whom bore some ensign in their hands; after them followed ten bishops, all mitred, with their crosier staves in their hands. In this order they returned from Westminster Hall, before the queen, to the Abbey, where she was crowned by Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, and lord chancellor of England. At the time of the coronation, Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, delivered a sermon to the queen and the nobiity. It was hoped that a general pardon would have been proclaimed within the Abbey at the time of her coronation; but all the prisoners of the Tower and of the Fleet were excepted, and upwards of sixty others.
The vice-chancellor of Cambridge challenged one Mr. Pierson, who still ministered the communion in his own parish, and received strangers of other parishes to the same, but would not say mass. Whereupon, within two days after, he was discharged from further ministering in his cure. The archbishop of York also was sent to the Tower, Oct. 4, 1553.
On Sunday, the 15th of October, Laurence Saunders preached at Allhailows in Bread Street, where he declared the abomination of the mass, with divers others matters, very notably and godly; whereof more will be heard hereafter. But about noon of the same day, he was sent for by the bishop of London, and from thence committed to the Marshalsea.
On Thursday, October 5th, the new parliament met. there had been great violence used in many elections, and many false returns were made; some who were known to be zealous for the reformation were forcibly turned out of the house of commons, which was afterwards offered as a ground upon which that parliament, and all acts made in it, might have been annulled. There came only two of the reformed bishops to the house of lords, the two archbishops and three bishops being in prison; two others were turned out, the rest stayed at home, so only Taylor and Harley, the bishops of Lincoln and Hereford, attended. When mass began to be said, they are reported to have gone out, and were never suffered to come to their places again, others say, they refused to join in that worship, and were in consequence violently thrust out. In the house of commons some of the more forward moved that king Edward's laws might be reviewed, but things were not yet ripe enough for that.
On Sunday, Oct. 20, Dr. Weston preached at Paul's Cross. In the beginning of his sermon he desired the people to pray for the souls of the departed. "You shall pray," said he, "for all them that be departed, who be neither in heaven nor hell, but in a place not yet sufficiently purged to come to heaven, that they may be relieved by your devout prayers." He named the Lord's table an oyster-board; said that the catechism in Latin lately published was abominable heresy, and likened its defenders to Juliam the apostate, and the book to a dialogue written by Julian, wherein Christ and Pilate were the speakers; with many other things. This sermon Mr. Cloverdale learnedly confuted in writing, and would have publicly read his refutation had he been allowed.
Soon after these events the vice-chancellor of Cambridge went to Clare Hall, and removed Dr. Madew, on account of his being married, and placed Mr. Swynbourne in the mastership there, by virtue of the lord chancellor's letters. On Oct. 28, the papists in King's College, Cambridge, revived their whole service again in the Latin tongue, contrary to the law, than not repealed; but anticipating its repeal very soon after. The vie-chancellor sent for the curate of the Round church in Cambridge, commanding him not to minister any more in the English tongue, saying, he would have one uniform order of service throughout the town, and that in Latin, with mass, which was established about the middle of November. The archdeacon's official visited Huntington, where he charged to imprison all such as disturbed the queen's proceedings, in hindering the Latin service, setting up their altars, and saying mass or part thereof; whereby it was easy to see how these men meant to proceed, having the law once on their side, who thus so readily, against a manifest law, would attempt the punishment of any man.
In December there were two proclamations at London; one for repealing certain acts made by king Edward, and for setting up the mass before the feast of the nativity. The other was, that no man should interrupt any of those who would say mass after it became established. The parliament continued till the 5th of December. In it were dissolved, as well all the statues made of praemunire in the time of king Henry VIII, as also other laws and statues concerning religion and administration of sacraments, decreed under Edward VI.; while it was appointed, that on the eve of St. Thomas ensuing, the old form and manner of church-service, used in the last year of king Henry, should again be restored.
About this time a priest of Canterbury said mass on one day, and on the following he came into the pulpit, and desired the people to forgive him: for he said he had betrayed Christ, not as Judas did, but as Peter did, and made a long sermon against the mass. At the beginning of the new year, 1554, four ambassadors came into London from the emperor, and were honourably received. Their names were, le compte de Egmont, le compte de Lalen, monsieur Corire, le chancelier Nigry. Very soon after, there were appointed a great number of new bishops, deans, and other church dignitaries; more than were ever made at one time since the conquest. They were, Dr. Holyman, bishop of Bristol; Dr. Cotes, bishop of West-Chester; Dr. Hopton, bishop of Norwich; Dr. Bourne, bishop of Bath; Dr. White, bishop of Lincoln; Dr. Mores, bishop of Rochester; Dr. Morgan, bishop of St. David's; Dr. Poole, bishop of St. Asaph; Dr. Brookes, bishop of Gloucester; Dr. Moreman, coadjutor to the bishop of Exeter, and after his decease bishop of Exeter; Dr. Glyn, bishop of Bangor; Mr. Fecknam, dean of St. Paul's; Dr. Reynolds, dean of Bristol; with several others.
The vice-chancellor of Cambridge now called a congregation general, wherein amongst other things he shewed, that the queen would have there a mass of the Holy Ghost upon the 18th of the following February, which was her birth-day. This was accordingly fulfilled on the day appointed, and that very solemnly. For opposing this measure Dr. Crome was committed to the Fleet, and one Addington was committed to the Tower. The same day, the bishop of Winchester declared openly in the court that the treaty of marriage between the queen's majesty and the prince of Spain was concluded: and the day following, the mayor, the aldermen, and several of the commons, were at the court, and there they were commanded by the lord chancellor to prepare the city to receive prince Philip of Spain; declaring unto them what a catholic, mighty, prudent, and wise prince he was.
Several additional arrests were now made: the lord Marguis of Northampton was again committed to the Tower, and Sir Edward Warner with him. Mr. Justice Hales was committed to the Marshalsea; and Mr. Rogers to Newgate. During several days about this time, the Londoners prepared a number of soldiers, by the queen's command, to go into Kent against the commons. These were commanded by the duke of Norfolk, the earl of Wormwood, Sir Henry Jerningham, Sir George Hayward, and ten other captains. The soldiers, when they came to Rochester bridge, where they should have set upon their enemies, most of them left their own captains, and came wholly to the Kentish men; and so the captains returned to the court both void of men and victory, leaving behind them six pieces of ordnance and treasure.
In January, the duke of Suffolk, with his brethren, departed from his house at Shene, and went into Leicestershire; after whom the earl of Huntingdon was sent to take him and bring him to London; and on his return proclaimed the duke traitor as he rode. A few days after his arrival in the city, he was arraigned at Westminster, and the same day condemned to die by his peers; the earl of Arundel being chief judge. The three sons of Lord Cobham, a noble family, every generation of which were faithful to the reformed cause, were also arraigned at Westminster: the youngest was condemned, whose name was Thomas; the other two came not to the bar. About the same time Lord John Gray was arraigned at Westminster, and condemned. Lord Thomas Gray, and Sir James Croft, were brought through London to the Tower, with a number of horsemen; and Sir Nicholas Throgmorton was committed to the same common receptacle.
The latter end of this month February, Henry Gray duke of Suffolk, was brought forth to the scaffold on Tower Hill, and in his coming thither there accompanied him Dr. Weston as his spiritual father, notwithstanding, as it seemed, against the will of the duke. For when the duke went up to the scaffold, Weston, being on the left hand, pressed to go up with him; when he, with his hand, put him down again off the stairs; but Weston taking hold of the duke, forced him down likewise. And as they ascended the second time, the duke again put him down. Then Weston said, that it was the queen's pleasure he should attend. Wherewith the duke casting his hands abroad, ascended up the scaffold, and paused a long time after. He then said, "Master, I have offended the queen, and her laws, and thereby am justly condemned to die, and am willing to die, desiring all men to be obedient, and I pray God that this my death may be an example to all men, beseeching you all to bear me witness, that I die in the faith of Christ, trusting to be saved by his blood only, and by no other sacrifice; for Christ died for me, and for all them that truly repent, and stedfastly trust in him. And I do repent, desiring you all to pray to God for me; and that when you see my breath depart from me, you will pray that he may receive my soul." And then he desired all men to forgive him.
Dr. Weston then declared with a loud voice, that the queen's majesty had forgiven him. With that several of the standers by said, with audible voice, "Such forgiveness God send thee!" The duke then kneeled, and said the psalm Miserere mei Deus unto the end, holding up his hands, and looking up to heaven. And when he had ended he said, "Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit." Then he arose, and delivered his cap and his scarf unto the executioner, who, on his knees asked the duke forgiveness. "God forgive thee, and I do," said the duke: "and when thou dost thine office, I pray thee do it well, and send me out of this world quickly, and God have mercy on thee." Then stood there a man who said, "My Lord, how shall I do for the money that you owe?" The duke said, "Alas, good fellow, I pray thee trouble me not now, but go thy way to my officers." He then tied a handkerchief about his face, kneeled down, and said the Lord's prayer, and, "Christ have mercy upon me." After which he laid his neck on the block, and the executioner took the axe, and at the first blow struck off his head, and then held it up to the people.
The same day about 240 prisoners received pardon, and came through the city with halters about their necks. The next day Sir William Sentlow, one of the lady Elizabeth's gentlemen, was committed as a prisoner to the master of the horse. On the day following Sir John Rogers was committed to the Tower. Within a few days after, all such priests in the diocese of London as were married were divorced from their livings, and commanded to bring their wives within a fortnight, that they might be like wise divorced from them; this was an act of the bishop's own power. The next month certain gentlemen of Kent were sent into that county to be executed, among whom we find the two Mantels, two Knevets, and Bret. When the elder Mantel was under the gallows, upon his being turned off the rope broke. Upon this the priests present urged him to recant, and receive the sacrament of the altar, promising him the queen's pardon: but this worthy gentleman rejected their insidious council, and chose rather to die, than live by dishonouring God.
We now come to the second year of the Mary's short and affecting reign. As Easter approached, every householder in London was commanded to appear before the alderman of his ward, and all were commanded, that they, their wives, and servants, should prepare themselves for confession, and receive the sacrament at Easter; and that neither they, nor any of them should depart out of the city until Easter was past. Additional excitement was produced by the lady Elizabeth, the queen's sister, being brought to the Tower. At the same time the marquis of Northampton, the lord Cobham, and Sir William Cobham, were released from their confinement. On Easter-day, in the morning, at St. Pancras in Cheap, the crucifix, with the vessel in which the host was kept, were stolen out of the sepulchre, before the priest declared the resurrection: so that when, after his accustomed manner, he put his hand into the sepulchre, and said very devoutly, "He is risen, he is not here," he found his words true, for that which he called the body of Christ was not there indeed. Whereupon, being half dismayed, the priests consulted among themselves, whom they thought the likeliest to do this; in which consultation they remembered one Marsh, who a little before had been dismissed from his parsonage because he was married, to whose charge they laid it. But when they could not prove it, being brought before the mayor, they then charged him to have kept company with his wife, since that they were by commandment divorced. Whereunto he answered, that he thought the queen had done him wrong, to take from him both his living and his wife: which words were then noted, and taken very grievously, and he and his wife were both committed to separate prisons, though he was ill and needed her care.
A ludicrous event distinguished the beginning of April. A cat was hanged upon a gallows at the cross in Cheapside, apparelled like a priest ready to say mass, with a shaven crown: her two fore-feet were tied over her head, with a round paper like a wafer-cake, put between them, as though in the act of elevating the host. At this the queen and the bishops were very angry; and the same afternoon there was a proclamation issued, that whosoever could bring forth the guilty party, should have twenty nobles, which were afterwards increased to twenty marks, but none could or would earn them.
The first occasion of setting up this gallows was well understood. After the bishop of Winchester's sermon before the queen, for the speedy execution of Wyat's soldiers, there were several gibbets set up in divers parts of the city; two in Cheapside, one at Leadenhall, one at Billingsgate, one at St. Magnus' church, one in Smithfield, one in Fleet-street, four in Southwark, one at Aldgate, one at Bishopsgate, one at Aldersgate, one at Newgate, one at Ludgate, one at St. James's Park corner, one at Cripplegate: all which remained for the terror of others, from February to June. But at the coming in of the queen's husband they were taken down.
It should have been remarked that when Wyat was brought to the scaffold on Tower-hill, he spoke these words concerning the lady Elizabeth, and the earl of Devonshire: "Concerning what I have said of others in my examination, to charge any as partakers of my doings, I accuse neither my lady Elizabeth's grace, nor my lord of Devonshire. I cannot accuse them, neither am I able to say, that to my knowledge they knew any thing of the rising." And when Dr. Weston told him, that his confession was otherwise before the council, he answered, "That which I said then, I said; but that which I say now is true."
Even at this dark and corrupt period the benefit of trial by jury was in some instances remarkably seen. Sir Nicholas Throgmorton was suspected to be of the conspiracy with the duke of Suffolk and the rest against the queen. But he so learnedly and wisely behaved himself, as well in clearing his own case, as also in opening such laws of the realm as were then alleged against him, that the jury could not in conscience find him guilty; for which the jury being substantial men of the city, were each bound in the sum of 500 nobles, to appear before the queen's council at a day appointed there to answer such things as should be said against them. This conscientious jury appeared accordingly before the council in the Star Chamber, upon Wednesday, April the 25th, from whence, after certain questioning, they were committed to prison, Emanuel Lucas and Mr. Whetstone to the Tower, and the other ten to the Fleet. Sir James Croft and Mr. Winter, two friends of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, were imprisoned at the same time, and were soon after arraigned. Croft was sentenced, but the other re-committed. Soon after William Thomas was arraigned at Guildhall, and condemned; on the following day he was hanged, drawn, and quartered. His accusation was, for conspiring the queen's death, of which he was generally supposed innocent. This is certain, that he made a godly end, and wrote many fruitful exhortations and letters in the prison before his death.
A solemn disputation was now appointed at Cambridge, between Mr. Bradford, Mr. Saunders, Mr. Rogers, and their protestant friends, and the doctors of both universities on the papal side. Whereupon those defenders of the truth who were in prison, having notice thereof, notwithstanding they were destitute of books, and not ignorant of the purpose of their adversaries, and how the cause had been prejudged before at Oxford; nevertheless they thought that they ought not refuse the offer, if they might be quietly heard; and therefore wisely pondering the matter with themselves, by a public consent, directed out of prison a declaration of their mind by writing. Wherein first, as touching the disputation, although they knew that they should do no good, because all things were pre-determined; yet they would not refuse to dispute, if the disputation mighty be either before the queen, or before the council, or before the parliament, or if they might argue by writing; for else, if the matter were left with the popish doctors in their own schools, they had sufficient proof by the experience of Oxford, what little good would be done at Cambridge. Consequently, declaring the faith the doctrine of their religion, and exhorting the people to submit with all patience and humility, either to the will or punishment of the higher powers, they appealed from them to be their judges in this behalf, and so ended their protestation. This was drawn up by Miles Coverdale, late of Exon and signed on the 18th day of May, 1554, by thirteen reformers, among whom were Farrar, Taylor, Bradford, Philpot, Rogers, Saunders, Wigorn, Crome, and Glouces. Episcopus, alias John Hooper.
The lady Elizabeth, sister to the queen, now excited considerable attention and anxiety on both sides. On the 19th of May, in this year, she was brought to the Tower, and committed to the custody of Sir John Williams, afterwards lord Williams of Thame, by whom her highness was gently and courteously treated. She afterwards was sent to Woodstock, and there committed to the keeping of Sir Henry Benifield, knight of Oxborough, in Norfolk; who, on the contrary, both forgetting her estate, and his own duty, as it is reported, shewed himself more hard and straight towards her, than either cause was given on her part, or reason of his own should have led him. Some such restraint, however, was thought necessary on the part of her jealous and vindictive sister, especially in the immediate prospect of the Spanish prince, her husband, arriving in England. He landed at Southampton July 20th. As he placed his foot for the first time on British ground he drew his sword, and carried it a little way naked in his hand. This was interpreted as a sign that he intended to rule by the sword; but his friends ingeniously said, it imported that he would draw his sword for the defence of the nation. The mayor of Southampton brought him the keys of the town, which he took from him, and gave them back, without the least shew of his being pleased with this expression of respect. Five days after, the marriage took place in the cathedral church at Winchester by the bishop of Winchester, in the presence of a great number of noblemen of both realms. At the altar, the emperor's ambassador being present, he openly pronounced that, in consideration of that marriage, the emperor had granted and given to his son the kingdom of Naples, and other domains and titles. Whereupon the 1st of August following, there was a proclamation, that from that time forth the style of all manner of writing should be altered, and the following be used through the realm:--"Philip and Mary by the grace of God, king and queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland, defenders of the faith, princes of Spain and Sicily, archduke and duchess of Austria, duke and duchess of Milan, Burgundy, and Brabant, count and countess of Hapsburg, Flanders, and Tyrol."
Of this marriage, as the papists chiefly seemed to be very glad, so several of them, after divers studies to shew forth their inward affections, made interludes and pageants. Some drew forth genealogies, deriving the pedigree of the prince from Edward III., and John of Gaunt. Among others, Mr. White, then bishop of Lincoln, who was intoxicated with a poet's as well as a partiot's joy at the marriage, made several verses, which were answered by the bishop of Norwich and other soberminded writers. In a short time, the king and queen removed from Winchester to several other places, and by easy journies came to Windsor Castle, where he was installed with the Order of the Garter. A remarkable circumstance occurred at this ceremony: a herald took down the arms of England at Windsor, and in the place of them would have set up the arms of Spain, but he was commanded by certain lords to restore the former to their place.
The peculiar fondness of papists for pageantry to every kind, as well as the general spirit of the age, was now manifested in the several progresses and processions of the new king and queen, as they were called, through some parts of the country and streets of the city. In addition to the display of flags and the discharge of cannon, giants were placed in conspicuous parts with addresses in their hands; conduits were built and adorned in the gayest manner; images of worthies, as they were called, were placed here and there, holding presents and inscriptions. Such was the fulsome desire to gratify the prince, that in one place were some verses describing the five worthies of the world in five Philips, namely, Philip of Macedon, Philip of Emperor, Philip the Bold, Philip the Good, and Philip prince of Spain and king of England! In other places he was saluted by an image representing Orpheus, and the English people likened to savage beasts, following after Orpheus's harp, and dancing after king Philip's pipe!
Bonner, bishop of London, with the pomp of all his prebendaries about him, in St. Paul's choir, the cross being laid along upon the pavement, and also the doors of the church being shut, proceeded to say and sing divers prayer: which done, they anointed the cross with oil in divers places, and afterwards crept unto it, and kissed it. Then they took the cross and set it in its accustomed place, and all the while the whole choir sang Te Deum, which ended, they rang the bells, not only for joy, but also for the notable and great fact they had done therein. The new prince was present, and after Dr. Harpsfield had finished his oration in Latin, he set forward through Fleet Street, and so came to Whitehall, where he with the queen remained four days, and from thence removed unto Richmond. The pageants being over, all the lords had leave to depart into their counties, with strait command to bring all their accountrements and artillery into the Tower of London. Now there remained no English lord at court, but the bishop of Winchester.
The king's gravity proved very unacceptable to the English, who love a mean between the stiffness of the Spaniards and the gaiety of the French. But if they did not like his temper, they were out of measure in love with his bounty and wealth: for he brought over a vast treasure with him, the greatest part of which was distributed among those, who, for his Spanish gold, had sold their country and religion. At his coming to London, he procured the pardon of many prisoners, and among others, of Holgate, archbishop of York, He also interposed for preserving lady Elilzabeth, and the earl of Devonshire. Gardiner was much set against them, and thought they made but half work so long as she lived. The earl of Devonshire, to be freed from all jealousy, went beyond the sea, and died a year after in Italy, some said of poison. Philip at first took care to preserve the lady Elizabeth on a generous account, pitying her innocence, and hoping by so acceptable an act of favour to recommend himself to the nation: but interest soon after fortified those good and wise inclination; for when he lost all hope of issue by the queen, he considered that the queen of Scotland, who was soon after married to the dauphin, was next in succession after lady Elizabeth,; so that if she should be put out of the way, the crown of England would become an accession to the French crown; and therefore he took care to preserve her, and perhaps hoped to have wrought so much on her by his good offices, that if her sister should die without children, she might be induced to marry him. But this was the only grateful thing he did in England. He affected so extravagant a state, and was so sullen and silent, that it was not easy for any to come within the court; and access to him was not to be had, without demanding it with almost as much formality as ambassadors used when they desired an audience: so that a general discontent was quickly spread into most places of the kingdom. But Gardiner was well pleased, for the conduct of affairs was put entirely in his hands.
In the month of September, bishop Bonner began his visitation. The chief purpose of it was to see whether the old service, with all its rites, was again set up; and to inquire concerning the lives and labours of the clergy, of their marriage, and their living chastely; whether they were suspected of heresy, or of favouring heretics. Bonner conducted himself on this occasion like a madman; for if either the bells were not rung when he came near any church, or if he had not found the sacrament exposed, he was ready to break out into the foulest language; and not content with that, he was accustomed to beat his clergy when he was displeased with anything; for he was naturally cruel and brutal. He took care to have those parts of scripture, that had been painted on the walls of the churches, to be washed off; and upon this it was said, that it was necessary to dash out the scripture, to make way for images, for they agreed so ill, that they could not decently stand together. Upon the Sunday following the bishop of Winchester, lord chancellor of England, preached at St. Paul's Cross before all the council. The gospel whence he made his sermon was from Matthew, chap. xxii., where the Parisees came unto Christ, and among them one asked Christ which was the greatest commandment. Christ answered, "Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and thy neighbour as thyself: in these two are comprehended the law and the prophets." After a long declaration of these words, speaking much of love and charity, at last he had occasion to speak of the true and false teachers: saying, that all the preachers almost in king Edward's time, preached nothing but voluptuousness, and blasphemous lies, affirming their doctrine to be that false doctrine whereof St. James speaketh in his third chapter, that it was full of perverse zeal, earthly, full of discord and dissention, that the preachers reported nothing truly, and that if a man vowed to-day, he might break it to-morrow at his pleasure, with many other things. When he spake of the sacrament, he said, that all the church from the beginning have confessed Christ's natural body to be in heaven, and here to be in the sacrament, and so concluded that matter. He concluded the discourse by an extravagant piece of flattery on the king and queen.
--Footnote marker l--BT 4 words "wise prince he was"
When the treaty of the queen's marriage came to be known, the house of commons was much alarmed at it; and they sent their speaker with twenty of their members with an address to her
not to marry a stranger: they were indeed so inflamed, that the court judged it necessary to dissolve the parliament. Gardiner, upon this, let the emperor know that the jealousies which were taken up on account of the match were such, that unless very extraordinary conditions were offered, it would occasion a general rebellion. He also wrote to him that great sums of money must be sent over, both to gratify the nobility, and to enable them to carry the elections to the next parliament in opposition to such as would stand against them. As for conditions, it was resolved to grant any should
be demanded; for the emperor reckoned that if his son were once married to the queen of England, it would be easy for him to govern the councils as he pleased.